Introduction to Internet of Things
The IoT can be viewed as a global infrastructure for the information society, enabling advanced services by interconnecting (physical and virtual) things based on existing and evolving
interoperable information and communication technologies (ICT).
Characteristics of IoT
Interconnectivity: With regard to the IoT, anything can be interconnected with the global information and communication infrastructure.
Heterogeneity: The devices in the IoT are heterogeneous as based on different hardware platforms and networks. They can interact with other devices or service platforms through different networks.
Dynamic changes: The state of devices change dynamically, e.g., sleeping and waking up, connected and/or disconnected as well as the context of devices including location and speed. Moreover, the number of devices can change dynamically.
Features of IoT:
There are following features of IoT:
- Communicating objects based on internet technologies
- Detection, identification and location of physical objects
- Communication through connectivity
- Every physical object must be equipped with an IPv6-address.
Some real world Example of IoT Application:
1. Smart Cities
The Internet of Things (IoT) offers new opportunities for cities to use data to manage
traffic, make better use of infrastructure and keep citizens safe. The objective of Smart
city would be to use technology to offer services that are intelligent, advanced,
affordable and accessible.
2. Smart Home
In smart home, all necessary things like switches, lights, AC (all electronic equipments)
are controlled by Mobile application or Personnel computer. This technology provides
homeowners security, comfort, convenience and energy efficiency by allowing them to
control smart devices, often by a smart home app on their smartphone or other
The internet of things has numerous applications in healthcare, from remote monitoring
to smart sensors and medical device integration. The body functions monitoring sensors
are connected to the network to update the doctor or the hospital about the patient’s
real-time status like heart beat status or liver functioning etc. Also in the critical
situations an ambulance can be called automatically.
Applications of IoT in Agricultural systems are very useful for the formers. It helps in
checking of soil moisture, nutrient and PH levels in the field. It also helps in weather
forecasting, water requirement for crops etc. A system is built for monitoring the crop
field with the help of sensors (light, humidity, temperature, soil moisture, etc.). The realtime data about the soil and crop status is being monitored by the farmer like the
farmer gets a notification about watering the crops etc.